Dalits in ‘Hindu Rashtra’

The Gujarat Earthquake in the year 2001 and the consequent relief and rehabilitation programme was an eyeopener to the outside world regarding the deep seated caste bias in the Gujarati community apart from the much talked about bias against the minorities. There were reports that at places the relief and rehabilitation work bypassed the dalits and the Muslims.

Interestingly Babasaheb Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar had asked his followers to stop Hindu Raj becoming a reality at all costs.

The organised genocide of Muslims in the year 2002 at the behest of the Sangh Parivar organisations which was aided and abetted by the Modi government was another occasion when the travails and tribulations of the dalits came under further scrutiny. While a section of the dalits cooption in the Hindutva agenda and their metamorphosis as foot soldiers of the Hindutva brigade was duly reported, the Varna dominated media did not deem it necessary to emphasise some related facts. The genocide in Gujarat had also a little dalit blood accompanying it. The dalits lost 108 lives in Gujarat, 38 alone in the city of Ahmedabad. Quite a few of these deaths occurred due to the dalits resisting the Hindutva goons by siding with hapless Muslims.



It was the year 2001 when Naresh Solanki’s two and half year old nephew died. The aggrieved family from Hooda village Palanpur block of Banaskantha district went and buried him in the community burial grounds. No sooner they reached home came the news that a Patel community member from the village had literally exhumed the body of the child with a tractor. For the powerful Patels who had encroached on some part of land next to the burial ground had felt offended with the burial.

It has been more than seven years that the incident took place, the dalits of Hooda village are still waiting for allotment of some land for burial from the collector and the village panchayat since then, but to no avail.It was only last year that one community elder died the dalits had to carry his body to another village, where fortunately Dalits there had a separate graveyard. .

But can it be said that the problem of no land even for burials is limited to Hooda or it is a statewide phenomenon. A report carried by ‘Mail Today’ in the first week of Feb, 2009 had thrown light on the issue. It tells us that dalits are not allowed to use common burial grounds and are often forced to use a part of waste land near the villages as burial grounds. Absence of any legal entitlement forces them to be pushed out of such lands by dominant upper castes.

A survey conducted by Gujarat Rajya Grampanchayat Samajik Nyay Samiti Manch found out that ‘[o]ut of 657 villages in Gujarat, 397 villages do not have any designated land alloted for burial for dalits. Out of the 260 villages where land has been formally allotted, 94 have seen encroachments by the dominant castes and in 26 villages it is a lowlying area and therefore the ground gets waterlogged.

It would not be an exaggeration to say that when the question of burying the deads comes up, dalits share a strange commonality with the Muslims. Muslims share similar predicament when they find their graveyards getting encroached by the dominant classes. Few years back the Gujarat Highcourt had to intervene and ask the State government to post police personnel as attempts were on to encroach upon the graveyard of Muslims in Patan..



If the dead dalits have no place of dignity in ‘Hindu Rashtra’, one can just imagine the status of the living. One test could be househunting as a dalit in Ahmedabad – capital of ‘Hindu Rashtra’ in making.

The general experience is that if a Dalit approaches a upper caste builder for accommodation, he is either directly discouraged or tacitly denied.It is immaterial even if the Dalit belongs to a sound economic background. For the builders and real estate agents, selling property to even one Dalit family in a society becomes detrimental to sales.

Perhaps it is a marker of the deeply entrenched Varna/caste mindset, which has supposedly received new lease of life after the 2002 carnage, one witnesses a unique trend in Ahmedabad where “only Dalit residential societies – around 300 of them” have come up in recent years. In a recent study done by the Express reporter he emphasised that it “.. not a matter of choice, but of compulsion.” (A Dalit? Go find a Dalit society D P Bhattacharya Ahmedabad, June 17, 2007)”

“Even if a Dalit can afford a flat in areas dominated by the upper castes, they are often denied by the builders or the seller,” retired IAS officer P K Valera, who lives in one such Dalit society in Ramdevnagar, says. Some social scientists say the alienation started since 1982, after the anti-reservation agitation, but agree that the caste and class distinctions have become more serious in recent years. This trend can be seen not only in the walled city but also in the posh areas of west Ahmedabad like Satellite, Vastrapur, Bodakdev, Ambavadi. Socio-political scientist Achyut Yagnik says, “There are more than 300 Dalit societies in the city. In Chandkheda alone, there are 200 societies, most of which have come up after the 2002 riots when people moved out from Gomtipur, Bapunagar and Dani limda area. You will find construction contractors who only build Dalit societies.”

Of course this near segregation of dalits to specific areas under the great umbrella of Hindu Unity, does not stop the Sangh Parivar to use the dalits for their sectarian agenda during elections and riots.Even a cursory glance at the the list of the dead and wounded in the riots makes it clear that one finds names of only Muslims and Dalits, rest of the other castes are nominal.

Interestingly a dalit from outside the state, whose caste surnames are not identificable in the mainstream apartments, can easily get into it.


Look the Other Way, While Recruiting Teachers

What is common between all the non-granted schools in Gujarat whose numbers hovers around 3255 according the website of the Gujarat State Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board. A close study of these schools may reveal many similarities but the foremost thing over which they seem to be united is to violate the statutroy provisions of the Education act 1972. None of them follow these provisions of the Education act. while it is mandatory for such schools to adhere to norm. End result, only handful of teachers from the scheduled communities in all these schools

Under the provisions of the education act – 1972, it is mandatory for all the granted and non-granted schools to abide by the reservation policy while making recruitments. And the rule says that if any school is found to be violating its provisions then its registration can be cancelled. Experience shows that the rule is openly flouted by the non-granted schools. Interestingly the state government has no qualms in accepting that they can’t compel the schools to do it as they are not given any aid.

It was only last year that Indian Express ( Vadodara, May 26, 2008) carried a big expose about this ongoing scam where ‘Government looks the other way as schools flout recruitment norms for teachers.’ According to the social justice and empowerment department, which is supposed to supervise the implementation of the reservation policy, the simple reason for the statutory provisions of the act being not implemented is the absence of a roster reservation act.

Question naturally arises why the state has still not deemed it necessary to take effective steps to stop such malpractice

In fact, a RTI application filed by a leading social worker of Gujrat enquiring about the no of teachers who have been recruited by the non-granted schools under the reservation policy, led to this expose of details.Expressing concern over the state of affairs, the social worker demanded two things : Cancelling the registration of  errant schools and punishing the officers who have been responsible for getting the policy implemented.


Handling Atrocities Cases Atrociously

What is the rate of conviction of cases under the Prevention of Atrocity Act against SC/ST in Gujarat ? It is mere 2.5 per cent while rate of acquittal is 97.5 per cent. A 23 page confidential report submitted by the state Social Justice Department to the State Chief Secretary and legal departments provides glaring examples of ‘mishandling of cases registered under Prevention of Atrocities Act against SC/ST. (Express, Sep 15, 2006).

The report provides details of how cases are not investigated properly by the police and the hostile role played by public prosecutors during time of trials.

– Act clearly stipulates that offence which are registered under this act cannot be investigated by an officer below the rank of DySP but more than 4,000 such cases have been investigated by Police Inspector or Police Sub Inspector.

– Acquittal of the perpetrator because victim not identified as member of SC or ST community. Reason, not attaching caste certificate of the victim with the case papers

– Public prosecutors false claims before the courts that act has been modified by the state government altough it is known that it is a central act

– Granting of anticipatory bails although there is no such provision in the act. Interestingly the Parliamentary Committee on SC and ST affairs had also expressed concern over such anticipatory bails granted ‘in atrocity cases in the state of Gujarat’.

In fact a detailed and systematic study of 400 judgements done by Vajibhai Patel, Secretary of Council for Social Justice compelled the government to work on this 23 page report. This report tells us that utterly negligent police investigation at both the higher and lower levels coupled with a distinctly hostile role played by the public prosecutors is the main reason for the collapse of cases filed under the atrocities act. It is worth noting that he has meticulously documented these judgements delivered under this act since April 1, 1995 in the Special Atrocity Courts set up in 16 districts of the state. The study also blasts the common perception is that the inefficacy of this law is due to false complaints being lodged or compromises between the parties, in actuality it is a complicit State that has rendered the Act toothless.

Perhaps the whole state of affairs was a continuation of the situation as it existed there.

The National Crime Records Bureau had made an observation few years back which went unnoticed. Coming to atrocities against Dalits, Gujarat ranks third in the country after U.P. and Bihar. (Asian Age, 11 April 2003) It’s earlier record also revealed a distrubing picture of the ‘Vibrant Gujarat’. According to its 1998 report, the total no of atrocities against dalits in the country were 25,617. Of these, 8894 cases were registered in Gujarat alone. 28 cases of rapes of dalit women were recorded that year, which was seventh highest in the country.

But when it came to taking steps to check offences against the SCs and STs the BJP government did nothing. The special dalit courts envisaged in all districts under the SC and ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act 1989 were still not a reality. Out of 26 districts of Gujarat, only 10 have been provided with special courts, although none of these 10 courts accord special status to dalit issues, according to Dalit activists. (same ref.)


Ambedkar’s Prognosis

One can go on belching out statistics about Dalit’s situation as it exists in the first ‘Hindu Rashtra’ in Secular- Democratic India. Definitely our aim here is not to present a data bank on this theme.

Our main concern is to raise two points.

– Why the near secondary status granted to the dalits has not become an important issue in the anti-communal movement ?

– Why a section of dalits still feels enamoured about Hindutva, can it be said to be sign of its upward mobility within the Hindu religion or it is a marker of the hatred it had accumulated vis-a-vis the minority communities  and getting ready to play out the Hindutva agenda on its own also.

It needs to be emphasised here that all over Gujarat one finds thousands and thousands of boards put at prominent places by one of the affiliates of the Sangh Parivar that ‘you are entering this or that locality of Hindu Rashtra’ which is completely illegal and an open proclamation of ‘secession’ from the rest of the society.

At this juncture one thinks of Ambedkar’s prognosis vis-a-vis Hindu Rajya. In his book ‘Pakistan or Partition of India, page 358) written before partition of India, he clearly prophesises : “If Hindu Raj becomes a reality then it would be greatest menace to this country. Whatever may Hindus say, actually it does not make a difference that Hinduism is a danger to Independence, Equality and Brotherhood. Thus it is an enemy of democracy. We should make all out efforts to stop Hindu Raj from becoming a reality.” ( Pakistan or Partition of India, Page 358)

Is anybody listening ?

6 thoughts on “Dalits in ‘Hindu Rashtra’”

  1. Dr. Ambedkar fought with tooth and nail against the Hindu Rashtra philosophy but in personal life he failed to do so . His book ” Annihilation of caste ” was his lecture which was to be delivered by him in the annual function of the Jaat Paat Todak Mandal , Lahore . But Dr. Ambedkar did nothing to arrange intercaste marriages among the Dalits . He got married himself to a Brahmin lady . He must marry a non-mahar lady to show the path his followers ! Before this he compromised with Mr. M.K.Gandhi to become Hindu by signing the Poona Pact on 24th September , 1932 ! Third , he embraced the Buddhism which is nearer to Hinduism . He must convert to Sikhism or Adi-dharam( recognized in census 1931 AD .www.ambedkartimes.com) which recognize the dalit saints and belong to Indian culture .
    The contemporary regional dalit movements supported Dr.Ambedkar and opposed
    Hindu Rashtra . Dr.Ambedkar could not dare to contest from Maharashtra for constituent assembly seat . Baba Muggowalia ( Punjabi )and Joginder Nath Mandal ( Bengali ) got elected from the Khulna seat ( Bengal ) . But there is no place of these and other dalit leaders in the ambedkrite movement and literature . The Ambedkrites and leaders of the Hindu Rashtra joined hands to record Sikhism , Jainissm and Budhism as Hinduism under article 25 in the constitution drafted by the drafting committee under the chairmanship ! The scheduled castes were compelled to register himself as Hindu ( still ) to get reservation ! Why ? This clause was not imposed on the scheduled tribes ! Why ?
    Dr. Ambedkar wrote a chapter ‘ Are not the untouchables a separate element ? ‘ in his book ‘ What Congress and Gandhi have done to the Untouchables ‘ in 1945 AD . But next years he published books ‘ Who were theShudras ‘ and ‘ The Untouchables ‘ to denounce his first stand !
    Mr. J.H.Hutton, commissioner of census 1931 made definition of the Scheduled castes in which he wrote that not only Brahmins hate the untouchables but the untouchables also hate the Brahmins ! But Dr. Ambedkar on 13th October , 1956 , the day before conversion to the Buddhism declared in a press conference at Nagpur that he would NOT be a member of the Scheduled Caste Federation of which he was the president ! Dr. Ambedkar equally made harm to the Dalits and manuwadis ! Dr. Ambedkar can not be implemented due to his flickering views / stands and time ! His followers are also flickering minds who ruled in U.P. and raise thhe slogans ‘ Haathi Nahin Ganesh hai , Brahma , vishanu , Mahesh hai “.When Dr. Ambedkar discarded these Hindu Gods . Dr. Ambedkar left the dalits on 14th October , 1956 and his followers left his philosophy . What a tragedy !


  2. Dear friends,Dalits had used as gunia pigs in godhra train burning where RSS and their goons had used explosive to burnt dalits alive in train and blamed muslims for acts and other side they had used dalits ,tribals,OBCs as foot soldiers to killed muslims in gujrat.I had seen in Kanpur where Khatic community had been used against the muslims.time has come dalits,muslims,christians and OBCs should pin point their own enemy who are using them as foot soldiers.


  3. dear subhash,
    Dalit body seems to be “popular” anxiety of both ‘hindutva’ and ‘secular hindu’ (read national). And their plight remains the same in ‘hindutva’ and ‘secualr’ rashtra. The Dalit emancipation as a question of nation cannot be addressed by repeated invoking of such anxieties as both seems to stem from the premise where the essentialised caste hindu identity attains universal invisibility and can stand alone as the nation/state vis-a-vis demonising of the assertions of the Dalit/bahujan as “essentialising”, “deviant”, “casteist” and “pre-modern” and wht not.
    It would be interesting if you could throw some light on the other essentialised self– the brahmin in hindu rashatra. how does this essentialised brahmin self accomodate and mediate between its own essentialised secular avatar will be interesting.
    hope the same historical locale will provide materials for such an inquiry. else leave it.


  4. Hinduism minus brahminism equal to zero.brahminism is other name of hinduism.Brahminism is hinduism and their followers are slaves of brahminism,have you seen how hindus are prostrating in front of brahmins.


  5. Dear Subash ,Dalits did not leave the Dr Ambedkar ,only harijan had left the Dr Ambedkar,We had brought down the hindu led government on his knees in Maharasthra on Buddhist holocaust in Nagpur.donot forget that hindus and their communist folks are the son of jews who are hinduising the dalits.if you want to give two finger to hindus and their hindu led government then you have to bring back to dalits in buddhist path where they they can take their country back from barbaric people.


We look forward to your comments. Comments are subject to moderation as per our comments policy. They may take some time to appear.

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s