How Modi Views Untouchability: Dissecting the ‘Toilets First, Temples Later’ Debate

Narendra Modi, would not have imagined that his exhortation that ‘toilets first, temples later’ at a Delhi conclave would not only generate a debate within the saffron fraternity but would also bring back focus on the pathetic situation of sanitation in his home state itself. And the ensuing discussion would also transcend to his controversial ideas about untouchability – the social-religious practice based on the logic of purity and pollution which has marginalised, terrorised and relegated a section of Indian society to a life marked by humiliation and indignity. Perhaps the sharpest unwarranted advice to him came from Shiv Sena, BJP’s longtime ally, which in its mouthpiece sarcastically commented “It is time Congress appoints Narendra Modi as its brand ambassador for the toilet project”.

Coming to the figures about sanitation in the state, the 2001 census had shown rural sanitation coverage meaning three basic facilities — drinking water, electricity and sanitation – merely at a low 21%. The 2012-13 India Rural Development Report tells us that it has reached merely 25 % of the state’s population. The situation is not very encouraging in urban areas as well.

In fact, a recent survey by ‘Manav Garima’, a community-based organization, fighting for the rights of the scavenging community, Valmikis, in Ahmedabad, has found that there are 126 spots where manual scavenging is practiced under the aegis of the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) itself. The survey suggests, 188 dry latrines still continue to operate in the city. (

Interestingly, there is a great hiatus between what the government admits and the actual situation on the ground. When a petition was filed by the same organisation with the National Human Rights Commission in this regard in the year 2010, the Gujarat government had no qualms in replying that there were no manual scavengers in the whole state and it is serious in effective implementation of the 1993 act (Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act, 1993,) which stipulates punishment to those employing manual scavengers or those who order construction of dry (non-flush) latrines.

Whether this silence vis-a-vis manual scavenging is because of Modi feels that it is a ‘spiritual experience’ need to be looked into. As is evident, his retrograde thinking which rather sanitises the humiliation of a community has not received the attention it deserved.

It was the year 2007  when collection of Narendra Modi’s speeches to IAS officials at various points of time were compiled in a book form named ‘Karmyog’ and were published by the Gujarat government. Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation, a top ranking PSU was roped in to fund 5,000 copies of the book. Thanks to a veteran journalist, Rajiv Shah, without whose incisive report, the world would not have known l’affaire ‘Karmyog’. (

Pages 48-49 of the said book give an inkling of Modi’s ideas. He writes :

 “I do not believe that they have been doing this job just to sustain their livelihood. Had this been so, they would not have continued with this type of job generation after generation….At some point of time, somebody must have got the enlightenment that it is their (Valmikis’) duty to work for the happiness of the entire society and the Gods; that they have to do this job bestowed upon them by Gods; and that this job of cleaning up should continue as an internal spiritual activity for centuries. This should have continued generation after generation. It is impossible to believe that their ancestors did not have the choice of adopting any other work or business.”

Later Modi’s remark got published in the Times of India in mid-November 2007, which were translated and republished in few Tamil newspapers. There was a massive reaction of Dalits in Tamil Nadu for calling their menial job “spiritual experience”. Modi’s effigies were burnt in different parts of the state. Sensing trouble Modi immediately withdrew 5,000 copies of the book, but he did not change his opinion. Two years later, addressing 9,000-odd safai karmacharis, (cleanliness workers) he likened the safai karmacharis’(cleanliness workers) job of cleaning up others dirt’ to that of a temple priest. He told them,

“A priest cleans a temple every day before prayers, you also clean the city like a temple. You and the temple priest work alike.”

One was reminded of these ideas of Modi, when news came in sometime back that the budget for this financial year passed by the Gujarat state assembly, had allocated a sum of Rs 22.5 lakhs for giving training in Karmkand (rituals) to Safai Kamdars themselves. The idea was to train them in scriptures so that they could perform pujas (organise worships). It is clear that the ‘new scheme’ as it was presented before the people was just a revised version of its earlier scheme wherein members of the scheduled communities were given training to become ‘Gurubrahmins’ so that they could also perform pujas. It could be asked if Modi values safai karmacharis so highly, why is it that he has begun outsourcing all the menial jobs for a very low pay, between Rs 3,000 and Rs 3,500 per month per worker. Why they are not being employed on a permanent basis? (

With custodians of the state themselves having such regressive understanding it is not difficult to understand why untouchability is widely prevalent in Gujarat. Study by ‘Navsarjan’, a voluntary organisation, of 1,589 villages (2010) tells us that of these 98 per cent of the villages still practise untouchability. While the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, mandates a special court and a special public prosecutor to deal with atrocity cases, but the state government says that it does not have any money for this.

And the latest ‘proof’ which reflects the mindset of the Gujarat government and its ‘able administrator’ could be had from a state sponsored report ‘Impact of Caste Discrimination and Distinctions on Equal Opportunities : A Study of Gujarat’ (May 2013) wherein it calls caste discrimination a matter of “perceptions”. ( Period.

9 thoughts on “How Modi Views Untouchability: Dissecting the ‘Toilets First, Temples Later’ Debate”

  1. Scavenging is found manual in large areas (leave aside posh and VIP area) in Delhi. It means those who ruled nation for more than 55 years have lot to answer. Should one build any house, dwelling, office or place of worship without providing sanitation for workers doing it. It isn’t done, doesn’t mean it shouldn’t be done. Such write-ups are transparent overkill. Choice is yours, as such writings benefit Narendra Modi. Furthermore, Modi’s comment wasn’t in context of ‘untouchability’, it was regarding sanitation.


    1. I think we should move beyond this binary of anything being ‘beneficial to Modi’ and ‘detrimental to Modi’. The manner in which Modi’s larger than life size image is being projected, an impression is being created that whatever we do it will benefit him only. You criticise him, you condemn him, you discard him , he will remain talk of the town. I think it is a big myth much on the lines of the TINA factor much in vogue sometime back, which is being peddled by his supporters as well as the PR machinery engaged by him.

      It is high time we are able to bring forth every small thing which can put him and his people to inconvenience so that all those people are still not mesmerised by his image could be saved.

      At the cost of being charged with self promotion I would like to share an anecdote. Few days back I got a call from Meerut from a dalit activist who told me that he has distributed 1,ooo copies of one of my article (on a similar theme in Hindi which appeared in Jansatta) in around 10-11 areas which are mostly populated by Valmikis. He told me that this exposure of Modi’s glorification of manual scavenging at least helped him win few hotheads among them from crossing over to the riotous mob.


      1. Thank god I came across your site and learned about what a ROITS MOB all Modi supporter are. Thanks a lot.

        Dude, I dislike Modi for his BS regarding development and all but what you said in this comment is overkill.

        There’re many things that are wrong with Modi and his politics same a many things that may be correct. But to call all Modi supporters a band of hooligans and riotous is just plain wrong and shows a bias in your thinking.


    2. Look at non thinking people talking.Keep aside Modi. Let me make u think.
      1- Why should people of a community forced to dirty work.
      2- Why make them work manually, who will think for them if u force them to stop thinking.
      3-Given a choice will anyone opt to do mannual scavenging.
      4-In 1600 England also had manual scavengers, but as they were free to do alternate work, and as a community was not created for this work.They were higest paid workers then so that the city can attract people to this job.
      Kindly stop justifying a societies sickness just to save a politician.


  2. Now That Modi has said it, let’s ask him to go a step further and say “Toilets first and toilets last” supervised by the CEOs of Industry, Banks, RSS, Sangh Pracharaks…his admirers among the NRIs and many more followers in the print and social media. Cheers!


  3. Hindu Parivar and BJP in particular seek to pull the ‘ the India of today’ back to early medieval hindu hierarchy. It is history’s irony that this Neo retrograde Hindu revivalism is the the doctrine of the political party that is likely to capture power in the 2014 election. People, in general, are like puppies that keep licking your feet that keep kicking them.


  4. I am not so intelligent and not so good as Priyankaji, but I can see through Modi’s style. Lately he is saying nothing positive and is on a drive to discredit other NETAS / PARTIES.


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