[with inputs from Baiju John]
Faced with the never-ending agony to which the members of the Dalit Human Rights Movement (DHRM) in Kerala seem to be subject to, it appears that that the more familiar ways of marginalizing of dalit people in Malayalee people do not work anymore. The past few days have seen horrendous attacks on these people near the town of Varkala in Thiruvanathapuram district. The DHRM has accused the Siva Sena and the BJP of violence, but it appears that both the authorities and the press are equally and irremediably deaf.
‘Deprivation’ was the dominant mode of marginalization, which gives rise to the picture of peoples trapped in the waiting room of social development, who however do not differ in other ways from those who have gained entry. Dalits were certainly conceived as inferior, but the reformers insisted that they were ‘reformable’, and hence the projects of ‘uplift’. In other words, they are the ‘acceptable’ outcasts, upon whom the elite constantly exercise their pastoral authority. Their oppression, rights, ‘voices’, and redemption are unendingly discussed in elite circles, though such discussion rarely moves beyond the terms of debate set by the state, elite intellectuals, or technocrats.
I’m however more inclined to think these days that this is being rapidly replaced by abjection — by which these people are rendered more or less invisible, their words are not just ignored, they are simply not heard. As Julia Kristeva put it, abjects are themselves deprived subjecthood, but they nevertheless circumscribe the domain of the subject.These socially stigmatised groups signify ‘dirt’ and ‘disorder’ to the dominant. If in the frame of ‘deprivation’, dalits were considered eminently reformable.The abject, however, remains beyond the pale of reformist efforts, and are thus deemed the ‘unacceptable’outcasts of the dominant order.Under post-Gulf migration conditions combined with the impact of globalisation in contemporary Kerala, abjection as a mode of marginalization seems to have acquired renewed strength.
The DHRM seems to be taking the full brunt of this assault since 2009, persistently demonized in the media as ‘black shirts’, ‘Dalit terror’, and so on [here is a relatively sympathetic report : http://www.indianexpress.com/news/the-dalit-evangelists/636003/0 ]. The Ambedkarite and Buddhist DHRM has spread in the dalit colonies, especially in and around the town of Varkala. It is interesting that they reach out to dalits who are trapped in these squalid spaces, and the only ‘opportunities’ that liberalization has opened to them seem to be largely of a criminal nature. There is credible research that reveals the enormous inequalities that mark this ‘Gulf pocket’, in which the dalits have been completely unable to make use of the opportunities for migration to West Asian countries [see the work of Ashley McClelland, on a village very near Varkala with comparable conditions, http://gradworks.umi.com/MR/57/MR57125.html ]. The DHRM’s work there has apparently succeeded in drawing the menfolk away from illicit hooch making and ganja peddling, and the consumption of these, as the women there have publicly testified [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ejIt-VTXE2I ].
However, the DHRM’s refusal to accept both the liberal framework for Dalit politics and the attempted neo-liberal resolution of the caste question through welfare handouts,and their bid to shape a resistant dalit self through new knowledge and practices have made it easy to cast them as monstrous — and hence abject. This also is perhaps the reason why dalit intellectuals in Kerala seem rather reluctant to speak out powerfully — even for the right of these people to be heard, if not against such mindless violence against them, who are undoubtedly against the most marginalized of dalits in Kerala. Indeed, among the dalits of Kerala, it is the pulayas who have been able to challenge their marginalization to a certain degree at least; they are the stronger presence within the critical dalit intelligensia as well, who are able to draw upon the legacy of liberal dalit reformism of the early 20th century Kerala. The kuravas and parayas, in contrast, have remained mired in deep want, material and cultural, and the disconnect between the critical dalit intelligensia and the inhabitants of the dalit colonies of early 21st century has never been so conspicuous as now. No wonder, then, that the DHRM has chosen to both reject the legacy of the so-called ‘Kerala renaissance’ and embrace Ambedkarite and Buddhist consciousness. While a few prominent dalit intellectuals have indeed spoken against the earlier bouts of violence perpetrated by the police against the DHRM, there seems to be the unfortunate assumption of a certain non-commensurability between the strategies of politics and self-building of the DHRM and critical dalit intellectuals.
The reports of renewed tension in the Mathrubhumi (13 Sept, Thiruvananthapuram edition) and Hindu seem to exemplify this drive to render the DHRM mostrous and abject. The DHRM activists have been complaining of repeated attacks on their houses, with several injured, which have apparently gone completely unreported even in the local press.They say that the police not only refused to file complaints but also sought to arrest the aggrieved. A police station march organized in protest against this at Madavoor was depicted as ‘irrational violence’.Das K. Varkala, the Secretary of the DHRM State Committee, alleges in his statement that this violence was unleashed not by the DHRM, but against (the nearly 500-strong) activists by those elements who had suffered in the just-concluded bye-election to the panchayat due to the DHRM’s presence there, yet the police failed to act fairly. They intervened only when the violence against activists became severe, and loss of lives seemed imminent. He claims that such incidents have been happening in other parts of Kerala, in which the police’s effort to foist false cases has been exposed, and the officials punished, but the press has chosen to ignore them. Baiju John, who has been following the case, reports that the situation is still grim, with no one being able to step out of the colonies, and those who do are at the risk of police cases filed by the so-called ‘local people’.He also claims that the reports in Mathrubhumi that have appeared continue to be biased and the DHRM’s efforts to correct them have been persistently ignored.
Indeed, reports in the mainstream press have depicted the tension at Madavoor as one between the DHRM and naatukaar— ‘local people’. At one stroke, the DHRM protestors, who are all local people, are rendered aliens, non-naatukaar, and the alleged attackers are conferred a certain neutrality. In contrast, Das K varkala’s statement, which the press apparently did not care to carry, clearly pinpoints the DYFI and accuses them of being anti-social. What more evidence do we need, I want to ask, of abjection as the dominant mode of marginalization? Indeed, the outrage of naatukaar have been evoked in Kerala most frequently to justify the violence of moral policing — and this is not surprising, given the deep abjection of sexuality in Malayalee society. One is certainly not saying that the DHRM is the only group worth trusting — but it is certainly dismaying that they seem to be refused a ear completely, their attempts at correcting others’ representations of them have been totally ignored. In other words, they seem to have been shut out of democracy, to such an extent that no attempt is being made by the dominant to even counter their allegations! I do not claim to have full knowledge of the events — and I will be grateful for reporting from Madavoor that is less biased.
Looking around it appears that no help is forthcoming for the DHRM from any quarters, whatsover, left or non-left. One sees no ground, even, to hope that the congress Chief Minister of Kerala, who certainly has no love lost for the DYFI, will act decisively. It is strange indeed, that Oommen Chandy seems to be mortally scared of even the tiniest mouse in the political field, of even the minor lumpen brigade, the Siva Sena, once notorious for precisely anti-Malayalee violence in Maharashtra. He is of course busy with his agenda that justifies over-speeding on the growth-is-development highway and probably does not want to waste his time on such things as the democratic rights of citizens, and therefore would prefer to pander to such horrors as Rahul Easwar and his bunch of hindu right-wing loonies.
However, the DHRM are no strangers to strategies of abjection, nor have they been cowed down by it. In a spirited response against such moves earlier, they did protest visibly in public space and move spiritedly into politics. In the panchayat elections of 2010, the DHRM put up candidates; it also announced the formation of a Dalit movement that would work against the CPM in the Assembly elections of 2011. In the 2010 elections to Kerala’s local bodies, they fielded candidates.Their recent protests have been in space that would be deemed the most public, the most visible, in the whole of Kerala — for five months in 2011, DHRM activists camped in front of the Secretariat in the capital city of Thiruvananthapuram in protest against the inaction of the police against violence perpetrated against them at a Dalit colony in Kollam. In March 2011, they resisted the government’s attempt to remove them, bringing in supporters in large numbers and laying siege to the main road.By keeping themselves in public gaze, the DHRM resisted the efforts to render them invisible; by insisting that their identity is a mobile one that responds actively to challenge, they seek to rebut allegations that render them monstrous.
I place my hope in this spirit to fight back, even as the powers of the dominant threaten to strike us blind and wordless.
10 thoughts on “Out of Development’s Waiting Room, Out of Democracy: The Continuing Agony of the DHRM”
There does not seem to be anything new so far as the stories of repression go. The DHRM is doing what is expected of it. It does deserve a good hand. That should also be borne in mind that what is happening in Kerala in this case is true of the whole country with negligible differences if any. I am sorry to say that an attitude towards Democracy has to be defined while fighting for the rights. Democracy is not to be abhorred. Currently the need is to make fullest use of its institutions.It is good that DHRM puts up its candidates in the elections to the different bodies. While doing this one has to make a review more often than not as to how to capture. power .One cannot think of jettisoning the democratic institutions.It has to be admitted our Democracy is full of flaws. One has to keep in mind that the “dominant” too are using these very instruments for the promotion of their interests. Why cannot the Dalits do the same. I am aware that that there is no level-playing field also .I am conscious of it. There is no escape. There come the role of a leadership which is fully armed with an analysis as to why there are Dalits and how they can become equal to others.
Pathetic article. All goondas and killers are under the umbrella calld Human Rights Activists!! I remember DHRM killing a morning walker for getting news!! And they proclaim that they are human right activists.. Hahahah…
I dont have any issue with dalits. But dont say that they are marginalised, atleast in Kerala. KL is the only state that doesnot restrict dalits from having a good life. In other states, upper caste will destroy dalit houses, will not allow them to get water, will not allow them to visity temples. In KL, there is no such thing.
So pls dont wite stupid articles like this.
ask vivek to stop coming to say stupid things.
Dear vivek, 166 million dalits are not communal otherwise they would have given you and your hindu led government in same way what you hindus are doing to dalits. Dalits have to demand for separate electorate and separate settlement if they want o come out from hindu ghettos.I think pakistan shouls help the 166 million dalits or atleat should raised to voice of dalit oppression in india.
you rightly mention about the ongoing intellectual debates and hairsplitting in Kerala about
the plight of of the Dalits, be they Xtians, Hindus or Muslims. But where do these intellos
spring from? Evidently from the higher castes within every community. ( See the blog on
the Muslims in Allahpur in KAFILA). The writer herself hails perhaps from a higher caste
and has been a beneficiary of that status- socially, financially and educationally. The blackout of the anti-Dalit atrocities and their exclusion from development and democracy is
fundamentally a problem of how Hinduism (with all its high flown metaphysics) has fashioned its world-view and how deeply and enduringly that view still survives and guides
our lives. If some of the Dalit intellectuals and enlightened ones have become ‘graduated’
into respectable, decent, “cultured” figures acceptable to those who matter in public life,
governance and cultural scene, it is precisely because they have been “sanscritised” and
“anglicised”. Suddenly they become babus, bhadralogs, and reluctant to be counted as
their lesser brothers. So the villain, I insist, is the caste system and is there someone
on the horizon to daunt that wild beast? When a young woman ( of course not a Dalit)
from India, doing her doctoral research in the famed Institute for Political Studies in Paris
tells me in all frankness that “the system of caste is good, it lends variety and color to our
nation and we should maintain it” what do I have to hang on to?
Dear Inasu where does your admiration for anti ambedkarite gandhi fits in to this. Gandhi is not different from your doctoral scholar in paris
Thanks devika for brilliantly exposing ‘nattukar’
Dear Joe, I do not see where in my note I have pitted Gandhi against Ambedkar. If you felt
so, that is absolutely your right, I bow to you in due reverence. Having said that, I still hold
that unless we tackle the phenomenon of caste in Hindu social fabric, finally succeeding in
abolishing it rootedly, I am afraid the dalits (by the way whoever named us dalits, it is as hollow as Gandhi’s “harijan” ) will have to languish in the outskirts of democracy and development. We may wage a million legal battles against anti-Dalit measures and still the others (from nampootiris to OBCs) will claim their superiority over the lowest of them all, the
adivasis. The notion of hierachy, supposedly ordained by divine sanction, is so embedded
in our collective unconscious, unless that very concept of social structure is challenged and demolished, a dalit will be a little ‘inferior’ in the mindset of all the others. The social
mobility in India, even in Left influenced Kerala, is in 99/100 cases horizontal, and seldom
vertical, which means a nampootiri groom, however broadminded, will not normally, even
today, dare to take a pulaya bride even if educated and employed. Why the attempts at
encouraging mixed marriages during the first communist regimes in Kerala failed miserably?
One only has to go thru the matrimonial ads in the press and the internet. I discovered to my utter dismay the existence of several castes and subcastes hitherto unknown to me.
Paradoxically, the white skinned Western brides and grooms (no matter they are housemaids and plumbers) are welcome in our midst. I am utterlly aghast to see in Jha’s
film AARAKSHAN a fighting dalit’s role played by a chocolate faced fair skinned actor. The
hypocricy of the Kerala middle classes and their cowardice to do away with caste is behind
the harassment we are subjected to everyday. Thanks indeed to Devikaji for bringing these
aspect to light. Surely organized resistence on our part should go on.
sorry for not clarifying. Your reference to Gandhi was in one of the earlier responses. I think, there , you, in criticisng all the french isms as unnecessarily linked to production theories, praised gandhi’s ecology. I am basically very critical of Gandhi on caste question. Though we can learn a few things on ecology from him. But even then gandhi’s lineage , has to be traced back to anti-enlightenment, is to be critically understood. And I think we can take a few things from Henrilefebvre to Adorno on critique of capitlaist ecological crisis. Being an Ambedkarite periyarist- sahodaran Ayyapanisque Marxist(if ever such an eclecticism is valid), I am that. So my skepticism on Gandhi. Rest , I agree 101 percent with you on all the caste questions and believe that a major chunk of indian main stream Marxism is becoming savarna bhadralokism. But sorry to say , dalit , a militant term, is not equivalent to gandhi’s patronising harijan.I liked your take on saif ali khan
Ford Partner, Dalit Foundation being investigated for FCRA violations??
According to a TimesNow TV expose, the New Delhi based Dalit Foundation is one among 103 NGOs being investigated by the Home Ministry for Foreign Contribution Regulation Act (FCRA) violation. The foundation allegedly diverted funds meant for charity into commercial investments and transacted funds into “shell NGOs” besides suspected of money laundering. If even one-tenth of these allegations turn out true, this could prove extremely embarrassing for the self-proclaimed corruption crusader, Anna Hazare as Dalit Foundation is funded by Ford Foundation who in turn is suspected of bankrolling his anti-corruption campaign.
Read more: http://exitopinionpollsindia.blogspot.com/2011/09/ford-partner-dalit-foundation-being.html